C53 form steam locomotive (C53 ye upper respiratory Kikansha), the Japan National Railways (JNR), predecessor of the Ministry of Railways is the Uni
ted States imported from C52 form upon analysis, and domestic production was 3 cylinder type of tender-type steam engine It is a car . Nickname is Shigosan.
|C53 type steam locomotive|
|Operator||Ministry of Railways → Japan National Railway|
|Factory||Train manufacturing , Kawasaki vehicles|
|Serial number||Additional notes|
|Year of manufacture||1928 - 1930|
|Scope of operation||Tokaido Main Line , Sanyo Main Line , Kure Line (After Full Line Open )|
|Axis arrangement||2C1 ( 4-6-2 , Pacific)|
|full length||20,625 mm|
|Total height||4,000 mm|
|Locomotive weight||80.98 t|
|Weight on moving wheel||46.27 t|
|Gross weight||127.25 t|
|Fixed axis distance||3,980 mm|
|Driving wheel diameter||1,750 mm|
|Shaft weight||15.44 t (third driving wheel)|
|Number of cylinders||Single 3 cylinder|
(diameter x stroke)
|450 mm × 660 mm|
|Valve device||Warshart type (left and right) |
Greszley type (center)
|Boiler pressure||14.0 kg / cm 2|
|Large smoke pipe |
(diameter × length × number)
|140 mm × 5,500 mm × 28 pieces|
|Small flue tube |
(diameter × length × number)
|57 mm × 5, 500 mm × 88|
|Grate area||3.25 m 2|
|Overheat heat transfer area||64.4 m 2|
|Total evaporation heat transfer area||220.5 m 2|
|Evacuation heat transfer area of flue gas pipe||140.9 m 2|
|Evaporative heat transfer area of firebox||13.5 m 2|
|Fuel load||12.00 t|
|Water tank capacity||17.0 m 3|
|Braking device||Own vehicle: air brake|
compilation: automatic air brake
table of contents Edit
- 1 Manufacture
- 2 Background of development
- 3 Gresley type valve system
- 4 Railway Ministry's only Japan made 3 cylinder machine
- 5 Modification
- 5.1 Streamline Modification
- 6 Scrapped car
- 7 Save machine
- 8 Modification to Taki 1600 type freight car
- 9 Footnotes
- 10 References
- 11 Relevant literature
97 cars were mass produced between 1928 and 1929 by two manufacturers of train production and Kawasaki vehicles . The situation is as follows.
- 1928: C 53 1 - 53 (53 Both)
- 1929: C 53 53 - 97 (44 both)
- Manufacture of train (47 cars)
- C53 1 - 16 (serial number 996 - 1011)
- C 53 43 - 53 (serial number 1038 - 1049)
- C 53 37 - 59 (serial number 1076 - 1078)
- C 53 71 - 80 (serial numbers 1093 - 1097, 1104 - 1108)
- C 53 91 - 97 (serial no. 1152 - 1158)
- Kawasaki vehicle (50 cars)
- C 53 17 - 42 (serial number 1241 - 1247, 1254 - 1272)
- C 53 54 - 56 (serial number 1303 - 1305)
- C53 60 - 70 (serial number 1322 - 1332)
- C 53 81 - 90 (serial number 1375 - 1384)
- Manufacture of train (47 cars)
In addition, this format was changed during the manufacturing process, as detailed below.
- Structural welding of sand box (Outer form changed from Unit 34 and later, Unit 54 of 1929)
- Expansion of upper ceiling windows of the operator's cab and change of shapes of adjustable link receivers (from No. 43)
- Increase the size of the steam chamber peephole on the side of the cylinder (after Unit 45)
- Addition of handrails to the front of the smoke room (manufactured by Kawasaki Vehicle after Unit 54)
- The location of the steam whistle attachment from the upper part of the fire room to the right side of the dome, the position of the evacuator from the front carriage to the front part frame (after Unit 57)
- The handrail on the front of the smoke room was moved from the smoke chamber door to the outer circumference of the smoke chamber (manufactured by train production after Unit 57)
- Change the vertical part of the front deck front from an integrated one to a sliding door divided into 4 (after the 60th machine)
Development background Edit
During the Taisho era, passenger cars became large and bogey cars became mainstream, but wood was still used as a car body material due to weight and cost circumstances . On that occasion , on September 23, 1926 , the limited express train at the Sanyo main line (later limited express "Fuji" ) was derailed by collapse of the embankment due to heavy rain, the vehicle wrecked, the vehicle wrecked, and many victims were issued. ( Sanyo Main Line Limited express train derailment accident ) This train is the highest class train that plays a part of the international communication route at the time , and if the passenger car was a steel car body it is presumed that the number of casualties was drastically reduced And public opinion was confused.
Therefore, since the following year the Ministry of Railways stopped new construction of conventional Naha 22000 · Suha 28400 series large wooden passenger cars and started switching to the newly designed Oha 31 steel steel passenger , but one problem occurred at this time . If it is a wooden car that was mass-produced in the past it is light, "N" class (27.5 t or more and less than 32.5 t), most heavy 20 m class 3 axis bogie cars are "Su" class (37.5 t or more and less than 42.5 t) or less The self weight of each car increased with steel production, at least one rank (5 t) weight division increased, and further , in the Suha 32 series which was the successor of the Oha 31 system which started production from 1929, it was 17 m class There was also a change in the general type passenger car of 20 m class similar to the honors car, and the tractive constant of each train increased more than 50 t, in some cases nearly 100 t.
It means an increase of about 20% of the train weight  , which was expected to be insufficient even for the C51 type , which was the main large main locomotive of the past. In the technology at the time it was judged that it is difficult to manufacture locomotives with performance exceeding C51 type as a 2-cylinder locomotive, and as a steel-made passenger car towing, a 3-cylinder locomotive which had been put into practical use at that time in other foreign countries It was concluded that it is appropriate to adopt it.
The 3 cylinder machine is a steam locomotive having substantially the same type of cylinder not only on the left and right sides of the underframe but also on the center line of the vehicle. Increasing the number of cylinders increases the traction power as compared to a normal steam locomotive   . At the time, however, although the full iron introduced mikani and succeeded in making it by a local manufacturer, the Ministry of Railways himself had no experience of developing 3 cylinder machines, but before the development of the first three cylinder machine of the Ministry of Railways 1926 to 8200 form is the United States of American Locomotive Company , Inc. imports from the (American Locomotive Company)  is, the part which is a feature such as a three-cylinder machine around the cylinder block is soft, the head of the just out of the "university by Kiichi Asakura Let's leave it to the new guy " Hideo Shima at that time was in charge of research. Other studies on new steam locomotive design including various auxiliary machines are being conducted.
Gresley type valve device Edit
The Greslie type interlock valve system adopted in this form is a single 3 cylinder locomotive invented by Lord Nigel Greslie who was the chief engineer (CME) of the London and North Eastern Railroad (LNER) railroad (LNER) As shown in FIG.
This is based on the usual Warshard type valve device, and the interlocking large lever (2 to 1 Lever: the fulcrum provided at the center part of the interlocking small lever with the back rod of the right side valve and · It is connected to the underframe at the center part) · The two levers of the interlocking leverage (Equal Lever: connecting the backward rod of the central valve and the buttocks of the left side valve), the valve timing of the left and right cylinders , Which is a simple and sophisticated mechanism for generating the valve timing of the cylinder provided in the central part of the underframe by differential composition.
However, with regard to the two interlocking levers that are particularly strongly applied and that are not allowed to go out of order to maintain the timing correctly, high levels of rigidity, abrasion resistance, and work accuracy are included in all of the interlocking lever including movable pins used as fulcrums Although it was required to maintain, railway companies that were able to adhere to advanced maintenance technologies commensurate with that were limited.
In this machine, since the interlocking leverage is made thinner than the reference type, it causes deformation when operating at high speed and the outer end of the rotating circle of the link is connected to the piston Because it is designed to match the center of the valve, the operation of the center cylinder largely deviates from the theoretical value in general even in the state without wear and deformation, abnormal excessive output occurs only in the center cylinder, the piston's back Depending on the crank rotation angle the pressure becomes larger than the positive pressure causing the immovable phenomenon , so the design is inadequate. In addition to that, both Himio Hima himself and Koichi Asakura , who decided upon him, are suspected . Lubrication of the central crank becomes a problem later, too, due to a malfunction of the valve device including not providing the oil supply line.
The Ministry of Railways' only Japanese-made 3 cylinder machine Edit
The third cylinder of C 53 (center of the picture)
C53 30 derailed by excessive speed in Ishiyama station premises (April 25, 1930, Tokaido Line Ishiyama station express train derailment overturn accident )
It was operated as the main force for express train / express train towers on Tokaido Main Line · Sanyo Main Line . Design chief is Mikio Ito (director of designing and manufacturing diesel locomotive type 11 DCR).
However, because of the complex structure and the large number of parts, it was disliked from maintenance maintenance side. large lever
In addition to the foregoing worse, because there was a fatal negative factors that lack of margin around the valve device from the narrowness of the gauge, in particular metal burnt third cylinder has multiple main communication rod lubrication to Big end ( greasing ) Was accompanied by difficult imagination , it was hard to say that it was a successful work  .
For this reason, the C51 type is used for the train and the super express "Yan" at the beginning of operation from the aspect of reliability  . Besides, the tow machine of Tsubame Nagoya and the west was about to be in charge of C53 form (after Numazu electrification, C53 form was responsible for Numazu and the west).
Still, at the time of the prewar, the Ministry of Railways included the machine mainly , including self-sacrifice of each agency district maintenance team centered on Nagoya  · Akashi  · Shimonoseki 3 agency district  effort, In addition to large-scale maintenance , repair   such as "10000 粁Limited"  and "Registration vehicle"  conducted at the Hamamatsu Plant , the Osaka Railway Bureau mainly handled the honors train operation Although it was barely intensive to concentrate on deploying the group with the best condition among the form of assignment inside the pipe  to Akashi Agency district , since then, through the Ministry of Railways and National Railways, it is not easy to manufacture the 3 cylinder locomotive Even the design disappeared and the steam locomotive in Japan was simple but steady but limited to only two-cylinder locomotives with little room for performance improvement  .
,It has been reported that the comfort was better than the subsequent C59 and C62  .
In this model, a plate covering the Greszri type valve device at the beginning of the manufacture was provided on the side of the front deck, but this was removed in a short time due to maintenance inconvenience. Immediately after the operation, the problem of water entering the steam reservoir occurred during traveling in the gradient section or during braking, so a ventilation pipe was provided inside the steam dome, but the 93nd increased the height of the steam dome experimentally and the dome I carried out remodeling to move the position of itself to the back  .
The crankshaft of the second moving wheel was a forged product integrally formed with the initial moving shaft , but from the viewpoint of strength and workability it was changed to the assembly type, the parts such as the piston body, the crosshead, the inner sliding rod were sequentially remodeled from the problem of strength . Further, 1930s since the mid part of the initial manufacturing vehicle from problems KenOsamuue Haishouki common late production vehicles and handling relocated, the expansion and pre-deck vertical portion of the steam chamber peephole as 4 divided sliding door In addition to that, Unit 88 changed the slope of the front deck, which had been broken into two stages experimentally, to a single open door.
Early in the Showa era, attempts were made to install various smoke exhaust devices on the upper part of the chimney and around the smoke chamber as in C 51, but since 1933, since the installation of the smoke removing board began, it returned to the original shape Has been done. The shape of the smoke deflectors Nagoya, Osaka and Moji ( 1935 each of the transferred on or after Hiroshima Railway Bureau) railway stations length and height is slightly different things by  has been adopted.
In addition, the part of the Meitetsu station and Daitetsu stations belonging car of limited express, express train long run operations in preparation for the Tansuisha from the standard 12-17 form D50 form transferred to 20 cubic rice form the initial car was using There were things  . The 20 cubic rice type coal-fired car used by this model has been modified to increase the height and length of the coke oven to increase the coal loading, and it became one outward feature.
Streamlined Modification Edit
Upstream "Tsubame" Forwarding train C53 43 December 9, 1934 Okubo - taken between Akashi
In November 1934, he took a worldwide streamlined boom of the time, and Unit 43 belonging to Umezuo Road Autonomous Region was experimentally converted to a streamlined manner on the 20th rush construction at the Takatori Factory . Cut the front part of the smoke room diagonally, replace the cab in the closed cabinet, cover the entire car body and the upper part of the charcoal wing with a streamlined steel plate, covering the gap between the locomotive body and the coal-fired car with a canopy . In addition, it was the first time that a streamlined kiss was given to the exposed train whistle . Through these remodeling, the appearance was totally different from that of other aircraft. Paint color be completed immediately after the maroon , the commissioning was written in the newspaper as if it had been repainted in black before, it is also originally said that only was not adopted if there is a plan other than black  .
In the streamlined boom air resistance has been advocated many reduce the effect of, the effect of air resistance is applied to the running of the train in the operation speed of less than at the time of 100km / h was very small thing. It was better to improve the flow of air around the train, to prevent smoke from getting entangled in the train and to reduce wind pressure on passengers on opposite train and station home during travel  .
On November 24, after completion, the official trial run was carried out at the Takatori Plant, and from December 1 of the same year to the 1st July 1937 diamond revision until the withdrawal of the C53 of the Umekogenan agency area from the express operation Between the Kobe station of "Tsubame" - Nagoya Station (Akashi Traffic Center - Traffic train between Akashi Stations and Kobe Station is also towed), descending "Fuji" between Nagoya Station and Osaka Station, and was also responsible for locomotive delivery and express trains of 17 trains Kyoto station - between Kobe stations and regular trains were also pulled  .
1935 (1935) of June Tokaido original station - Suzukawa Station performance test using a 55 Unit 43 Unit and the normal type between  carried out  , for this test result was good , C53 was remodeled to make all models streamlined, one copy 3,000 yen was posted, and it was not decided that [ 10 ] to be rebuilt 10 brands in the Showa 10 fiscal year  did not come true. A plan to start a remodeling to reduce the air resistance by 30%, such as by spreading the rear part of the viewing vehicle to 2400 mm to the full width of the car body, was reported , although the passenger car of "Tsubame" also had a streamline shape Has not been realized.
Since the interior of the driver's cabin was covered with a canopy, the noise in the room was alleviated, but on the other hand, the heat was caught and the room temperature was liable to be high. Also it took about 180% more time for maintenance check than other C53 type  . Immediately after getting out of express operation, we removed the cover of the upper part of the coal-fired car, the cover of the lower part of the car was also removed during wartime, and the jack was attached to the smoke chamber door which took time and effort to open and close.
- Rear, feeding water to tender
Scrapped car Edit
In the 1940's, in the two-cylinder model with the performance of the same class with the same class performance, we succeeded in locating the main locomotive of the trunk line , but because it is too large, from then on Tokaido, Sanyo main line and military transportation It was impossible to divert to anything other than the Kure launched under the Sanyo main line orbit condition. Despite the tightening of the locomotive demand due to the wartime regime from the beginning, production of passenger locomotives was interrupted despite the fact that this form was also fully operated, which will inevitably prolong its life. However, it was originally complicated and extremely complicated structure, overuse of wartime, poor maintenance, damage due to successive war damage and accidents, and vehicles leaving operation immediately after the war continued . After all, most early in the main line for large steam locomotive of domestic, 1948 from 1950 all over the scrapped it became  . Its too early letters to the editor column of the Asahi Shimbun for scrapping was to be taken up in the House of Representatives Transportation Committee will be beginning  .
Storage device Edit
Kyoto Railway Museum C 53 45
Unit 45, which was scrapped in 1950 (Showa 25), was left in the Takatori factory after training at the National Institute of Suita Driving School, but as part of the 90th anniversary railroad project in 1962, Osaka-shi Minato-ku, in opening the transportation Museum (of the later Modern transportation Museum will be stored in), the previous year of 1961 to service ready to (1961) restored in place, September 20 - September 21 the Suita yard - 2 days between Takatori Station Memorial traveling have been made. In 1972, in September 1972, it was transferred to the Mekhodoi steam locomotive building in Kyoto City , and as the only C53 form existing , the new building was opened in the Kyoto Railway Museum in 2016 (Heisei 28) April Are also kept static. In 2006 (Heisei era 2006 ), it was designated as a semi-railroad monument as "steam locomotive group of Umekoji and related facilities" .
Production nameplate at the time of restoration development of 1961 (1961), Yanai Metal Industry (Osaka Mitejima) had been kept of the partner companies of the train company wooden ones of the time produced by the style has been replicated  . The number plate of the active age was lost after the scrapped car, and at the time of the restoration run and the transport science hall preserved initially it was wearing the license plate of the formless name of the new casting, but afterwards the thing of the red land containing the type name, form before and after the plum alley way relocation It is exchanged for things with a name of black ground  .
When moving from the Transportation Museum to plum alley is, Osaka harbor station carried in the land until, Fukusen and on the main line from there Kap transport has been  .
In addition, Unit 57 which was also scrapped in 1950 (Showa 25) was preserved in the Hamamatsu factory with the boiler part opened for training purposes. Although it existed at that time in 1963, it has been dismantled later  .
Modification to Taki 1600 freight car Edit
From 19th September 1949 to November 5th the same year, a construction work to remodel the present type of charcoal water vehicle, which became a scrapped car, into a 40 ton tank tank car Taki 1600 for molasses transportation was carried out. Two remodeling works were done by Toyo Rayon and Wakamatsu Vehicle with 2 lots of 16 cars (Taki 1600 - Taki 1615, 32 types of books).
This was to permanently connect the coal water intake side (locomotive cabin side) of the two cars to face each other, permanently connect, remove the coal storage at the upper part of the coal-fired car, and use the lower tank as the tank. Two cars that were permanently connected were regarded as one car, and each car was marked as "Taki 16 x x front" and "Taki 16 x x".
The owner was inside and outside transportation, and its permanent station was the emerging station in Kanagawa prefecture .
It was completely abolished by July 1956 (Showa 31).
See Also Edit
- ^ For example, at the express train 17 and 18 express train which was a heavyweight sleeper train representative at that time (between Tokyo station and Kobe station), after completing steel production, the sleeper car of "Ma" class (42.5 t or more and less than 47.5 t) Seat cars and dining cars of each of the "Su" class (37.5 t or more and less than 42.5 t) and 1 car each, and "K" class (more than 47.5 t) luggage carriage, reaching only 500 t by the total weight of the passenger car He was
- ^ 3 The effect of cylinderization,
- Since the torque fluctuation is suppressed and the rotation of the driving wheel also becomes smooth, the adhesion characteristic in the low speed region is improved, the traction force is increased, and the hammer blow to the orbit can be reduced.
- Although the national railway technical team is also the most notable point, the cylinder block becomes heavier due to the increase in the number of cylinders, and even if the boiler is increased in size, the rise of the center of gravity can be suppressed.
- The exhaust of the cylinder is six times per rotation of the driving wheel, the ventilation becomes gentle as compared with the two cylinders in which four stronger exhaustions are performed, and unburned coal is difficult to exhaust, improving boiler combustion efficiency.And it was regarded as a mechanism indispensable to a powerful machine like this form which replaces the C51 form which realized ultimate performance with the strength narrow and narrow at the time in technology at the time. Especially, the large traction in the low speed range which is brought about by smooth power transmission is very attractive to cargo aircraft, and Grezely himself was also incorporated in GNR No. 461 (later LNER O 2 class as the first prototype in 1918 We tested this new method with axis arrangement 2-8-0 (1D), and in Japan it was seriously discussed when adopting the D50 design.
- ^ In a three-cylinder locomotive having left and right cylinders and a center cylinder, if all the cylinders are connected to one moving wheel, the central cylinder must be lifted except when it is applied to the first moving wheel. Taking the form of arranging the right and left cylinders in the horizontal and taking the form of lifting only the central cylinder, taking this form as an example, the central cylinder position is diagonally raised 7.5 ° and the central crankpin is delayed by 7.5 ° in order to equalize the cylinder operation timing Since the operation is placed at the same position of 120 degrees, only the crankpins are not evenly spaced. The startup impossible phenomenon has nothing to do with this.
- ^ The order itself was made in 1925, and it has nothing to do with this accident. However, at that time it was already established that steel production of passenger cars existed on the future road map, and it is certain that importation of type 8200 was allowed in exceptional way to study the countermeasure.
- ^ After lubricating properly, even if you exit the lubrication oil well, you may run out of lubricant on the way, and from Numazu brakes of the locomotive in which the engine assistant drives at high speed ( sticks connecting the brake shoes , brake rods) There is still anecdotal that it continues to lubricate with the preparedness of a death while leaving in the state, and exchanges it for another locomotive in Nagoya and got a story. ( Comrade Railway Fan 345 / January 1990 issue "Memories of OB in Nagoya Organization District · OB's C53 and its Steam Golden Age")
- ^ Most as Mantetsu Mikani, without submerge bother if provided with the lubrication line to go along the axle center be possible to lubricate the big end, the design side maintenance is also a consideration to was not enough I can say that.
- ^ This form was arranged and used in the Kozuin agency district as a supplementary machine for swallowing Hakone over Tsubame Hakone 3, and was used. This Kozu C53 type has entered the Tokyo station by driving a express train experimentally.
- ^ The Nagoya agency district after the Numazu electrification is responsible for all limited trains excluding the upward "Fuji" and the downward "Sakura" that the Hamamatsu Agency district was responsible for between Numazu Station and Nagoya Station, "Sakura" is Nagoya Station - Kyoto Station Both upper and lower trains were also pulling.
- ^ In the case of Akashi Agency district, the number of assignments is relatively small, around 10, and there are also many good outstanding machines as described below, so there are aspects that the eyes are easy to reach compared with other agencies . However, despite the long train operation between Nagoya and Kobe stations, most of the work in charge was the honors train driving, and in spite of the existence of long run operation between Nagoya Station and Kobe Station, this format was operated without much trouble until replacement to C59 type after 1941 It is noteworthy that I was doing.
- ^ In the agency district, a specialized technical chief was set up to adjust the Greszley type valve device, and even with the main line trial operation after inspection it was also carrying the technician.
- ^ After requesting from the Nagoya agency district, after exiting the factory, inspection and confirmation were carried out precisely so that it could be operated without disassembly maintenance up to the mileage of 10,000 km, and the charcoal water vehicle wrote the notation "10000 粁 Limited".
- ^ Large-scale maintenance that was supposed to be done on behalf of "10000 粁 Limited" since 1937, using maintenance skills researched at the Hamamatsu factory and the experience of the new type locomotive which appeared after C53 form We, Nagoya agricultural district The first "No. 7 car" repaired at No. 57 and the following No. 71 was subjected to decorations such as handrails on the run board and the deflector at the factory entry.
- ^ Press · Eisenburn "Rail" No.28 March 1992 P81-87 Yuu Nishimura "Continuation of locomotive operation centered around Nagoya in early Showa" (Elie Publishing)
- ^ Friend Company 'Railway Fan' May 2009 P126-131 Yuu Nishimura 'People who moved the C53 type locomotive from the magazine issued by Futenma to the cover photo - part 2' "
- ^ At the time of establishment of the Akashi Engine Building in 1930, I transferred the 12 most good states from the plum alley storehouse and made it to assign excellent machines in the subsequent assignment. Among them, the most stateful Units 23 and 30 were introduced in "C 52 · C 53 The echo of three cylinders" that was called "first akashi akashi (machine)".
- ^ In terms of Japan made 3 cylinder machine there is a mikani for full iron , which was introduced for the purpose of improving the adhesion rate at low speed for cargo towing, and although it is difficult to maintain, it is not as much as C53, It reached the crack and unstartable such as accident without any intended purpose after the war nascent communist China has been used for some time even if the.
- Because the primary vibration is zero in engines that were designed so that air supply / exhaust timing is evenly spaced in ^ 3 cylinder .
- ^ Since water does not expand in the cylinder, not only the output can not be obtained, but by any chance flowing in a large amount during high-speed operation, if drain does not make it, wake up a water hammer .
- ^ The smoke removal board adopted by Meitetsu, Kaitetsu, and Hiroitetsu stations is basically larger than those of the large iron station. In addition, the Unit 47 belonging to the Daito Bureau has a smoke removal plate that can be opened and closed at the front edge which was also adopted as part of the C51 shape, and at the car belonging to the Kaitetsu Bureau and the Hiroitane Station, the top of the chimney is slightly extended It was.
- ^ Meitetsu Bureau, 7, 57, 67, 68, 71, 73, 75, 85, 86, 87 machine, the Great Bureau station 18, 19, 33, 41, 43, 89 machine target, I exchanged the charcoal water again with Unit 30.
- ^ Tokyo The Asahi Shimbun November 24, 1934 The article "Streamline locomotive car tomorrow tomorrow turning dark eyeda's Date" shows that "the color is dense eyeglass and the bottom is blurred in gray". Furthermore, in the Osaka Asahi Shimbun article on November 25, it is written that "It is painted in black color by railway regulations". The latter Hideo Shima "streamlined steam locomotive" railway fan 2000 July Issue No.471 p.126 - There is cited in 131 (from "Hideo Shima posthumous collection"). Railway hobby Kashiwabara Akayama visited a trial operation at the Takatori storehouse on November 25 in the December issue of Showa 9th (Volume 2, No. 11) "The color is a gray hem blur or a color with a subspecific color Although I was listening, (surely) there is no mistake in black, although that was the first time that the plan was in place, but the regulations and the coating color of the steam locomotive is determined to be black It is said that it is a reason to stay. "
- ^ C53 About streamlining design and modification of C53 type 43 and C55 type, Hideo Akira "streamlined steam locomotive " Fellowship company " Railway fan " July 2000 issue number 471 p. 126 - 131 (" See ").
- ^ Press · Eisenburn "Rail" No. 23 June 1988 p.66 - 69 See "C5343 operation and its passenger car".
- ^ To the locomotive, the performance test car Oya 6650 and the spare car Suhauf 34445 were connected, and the state of the locomotive at the time of traveling accelerated to around 100 km / h was measured.
- ^ Nemoto Shigeru "The path of old fans who liked" Ⅱ · Press · Eisenburn "Rail" No.31 January 1996 p.36
- ^ Model Railway Company "Railway" Vol.7, No. 71 No. P55 (1935)
- ^ Railway hobby company "Railway hobby" Volume 2 No. 10 / November 1934 issue P 45 "Passenger car also streamlined!"
- ^ Imamura Kiyoshi Nippon Steam Steam Locomotive Drawings VIII C53 Friend Company "Railway Fan" April, 1964 No. 34
- ^ To the top end Chuosaisen Nagoya port or the Kansai Main Line - it is said to be a small part of which is used in (Nagoya Station between Kameyama Station). Further, barrier tunnel after opening in relation on forwarding and commissioning was also examined in this format Kokura plant Kagoshima line some sections of - was traveling (Moji Station between Yoshizuka Station).
- ^ "The 16th Conference of the House of Representatives Transport Committee No. 23, July 23, 1948" (available on the National Diet Library's Diet Conference Search System)
- ^ Press · Eisenburn "Rail" No. 78 P26-29 Hiroshi Takada "C 53 45 and the people around 50 years ago" (Elie Publishing Division)
- ^ Kyoei Kogyo Co., Ltd. (Osaka city) exhibits red type license plate containing C53 45 type name, but it is unknown whether it was attached at the time of transportation science museum
- ^ Press · Eisenburn "Rail" No. 78 P18
- ^ Toshi Kubo "Playback Observation Deck from Suruga Tokaido to Distance-2" "Railway Fan" No. 640 P108
References [ Edit ] Edit
- "C 52 · C 53 The echo of three cylinders" Press · Eisenburn 1973
- Ryohei Hikawa "C53 and Mr. Nishio's thing" (In "Kaisaburo Nishio Leika Railway Photo Complete Collection VI") Press · Eisenburn 2004