JNR C55 type steam locomotive Edit
|C55 type steam locomotive|
|C55 1 under saving ( Plum alley steam locomotive building , 2006)|
|Operator||Ministry of Railways → Japan National Railway|
|Factory||Kawasaki vehicle , train manufacturing , Mitsubishi Heavy Industries , Hitachi, Ltd.|
|Year of manufacture||1935 - 1937|
|full length||20,280 mm|
|Total height||3,945 mm|
|Locomotive weight||66.04 t|
|Gross weight||113.04 t|
|Driving wheel diameter||1,750 mm|
|Shaft weight||13.62 t (third driving wheel)|
|Number of cylinders||Single two cylinder|
(diameter x stroke)
|510 mm × 660 mm|
|Valve device||Warshart type|
|Boiler pressure||14.0 kg / cm 2|
|Large smoke pipe |
(diameter × length × number)
|140 mm × 5,500 mm × 18 pieces|
|Small flue tube |
(diameter × length × number)
|57 mm × 5, 500 mm × 84|
|Grate area||2.53 m 2|
|Total heat transfer area||168.8 m 2|
|Overheat heat transfer area||41.4 m 2|
|Evacuation heat transfer area of flue gas pipe||115.0 m 2|
|Evaporative heat transfer area of firebox||11.4 m 2|
|Braking device||Automatic air brake|
|Maximum output||1,211 PS|
|Rated output||1,040 PS|
|Cylinder tension||11,680 kg|
|Adhesive tension||10, 180 kg|
The C55 type steam locomotive (C55) is one of the medium tender type steam locomotives for trunk line passenger trains designed by the Ministry of Railways , the predecessor of the Japanese National Railways (National Railways) . Nickname is Shigo .
table of contents Edit
[ Hide ]
- 1 Background of birth
- 2 Manufacture
- 3 Structure
- 3.1 Streamline type
- 4 operation
- 4.1 Taiwan Governor General Government Railway C55
- 5 Save machine
- 6 Footnotes
- 7 References
Background of birth Edit
In the 1930s, the plan was to manufacture a successor model of the C51 type that can enter the line of the Hui line standard for the purpose of strengthening the passenger transportation capacity of the sub-trunk line . However, the initial design of C54 ( 1931 ), rushing frequently occurred due to high pressure boiler pressure and excessive weight reduction, flight attendance from crew members flooded, production was aborted at only 17 It was.
Therefore, this form is designed to supplement locomotives for passenger trains which are missing on each wire of the Hui Line standard. This form incorporates newer technologies such as adopting a bar frame while taking lesson from the failure of type C 54 as a lesson .
Production was started for domestic use in 1935 (Showa 10 years) for this type, and a total of 62 were manufactured in 3 divisions .
Since the design change was planned to be increased after some design changes in Unit 63, since this design change was diversified, after the one corresponding to Unit 63, a new format called C57 form Was given.
This format is Kawasaki vehicle , train manufacturers , Mitsubishi Heavy Industries , Hitachi by four companies, 1935 from (1935) 1937 62 both between the time (1937) was produced. As mentioned above, a new form of C57 form will be given after the 63th one, and the new form as the C55 form was cut off with 62 part.
The numbers and the numbers for each manufacturing year are as follows.
- 1935 (Primary type): 1 - 19 (19 both)
- 1936 (Secondary): 20 - 40 (21)
- 1937 (Cubic): 41 - 62 (22)
The number and the number of both manufacturers are as follows.
- Kawasaki vehicle (39 cars)
- C55 1 - 3 ( serial number 1538 - 1540)
- C55 10 - 18 (serial number 1541, 1550, 1576 - 1578, 1584 - 1587)
- C55 21 - 33 (serial number 1628 - 1640)
- C55 41 - 48 (serial number 1754 - 1761)
- C 55 55 - 60 (serial number 1763 - 1768)
- Manufacturing of train (11 cars)
- C55 4 - 7 (serial number 1281 - 1284)
- C 55 20 (serial number 1336)
- C55 49 - 52 (serial no. 1457 - 1460)
- C55 61 · 62 (serial number 1461 · 1462)
- Hitachi, Ltd. (10)
- C55 8 · 9 (serial number 620 · 621)
- C55 19 (serial number 687)
- C55 34 - 40 (serial number 709 - 715)
- Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (2)
- C55 53 · 54 (serial number 200 · 201)
The basic structure of this format follows the basic configuration of C51 type and C54 type which are subject to substitution / expansion.
Therefore, with a straight-type fire tube boilers which combines wide firebox, which is supported by the can body and one axis従台car 3 can body configuration, the axial arrangement of 4-6-2 ( White formula ) or 2C1 (Japan It is a lightweight superheated single-cylinder two-cylinder tender locomotive, with the formula).
However, as for the boiler , as a result of the adoption of a powerful automatic air brake , trouble occurred when hot water inclined into the steam dome due to the inclination of the water surface when a sudden braking was applied while traveling downhill, as a problem occurred, C51 type In C 54 type, the installation position of the steam dome placed on the first can body was changed, and in this form it was placed on the second can barrel. In addition, according to this, the sand box which was conventionally placed on the center of the second can body part was relocated just before the steam dome in this form, and the two were covered with an integral cover  . The appearance of this form is a combination of the fact that the welding method has been widely adopted by the progress of electric welding technology, the rivet is reduced and a lot of details are taken on the basis of a linear basis, and classical C 51 It was remarkably modernized compared to the form.
Boiler pressure and cylinder dimensions of this type follow C54 type as it is, increasing the shaft weight of each axis within the allowable range of the Crown Standard, thereby improving the adhesion performance and taking measures against idling .
This type of driving wheels are spoke driven wheels with a diameter of 1,750 mm like C51 and C54, but in these forms spoke split loss and tire deformation frequently occurred due to insufficient driving wheel strength, which was a problem  As a result, in this form, a newly designed spoke driven wheel with reinforcement was adopted.
A reinforcement portion called "water scraping" is formed in the same way as was adopted by German National Railway Forming Machine of the same age in the wheel portion of the driving wheel made of cast steel, especially the rim portion of the spoke , It is one of the major features on the exterior of the car. The spoke moving wheels with "water scraping" hardly suffered from problems such as deformation and spoke breakage, and had a great effect as a measure against these problems.
However, from the models D51 and C57 designed immediately after, it was decided to adopt an American style box-type moving wheel, and this form was adopted as the last spoked moving wheel adoption type as a large steam locomotive for Japan's main line.
As mentioned above, this form adopts a bar frame made of thick rolled steel sheet which had already been adopted for D50 type , C53 type, and C50 type . For this reason, unlike C51 and C54, which adopted the board frame, large cutout holes are opened on the side of the underframe, with the adoption of the above-mentioned spoke wheels, the spokes of the moving wheels and the underframe It is characterized by having a strong appearance of delicate and light feeling that the opposite side can be seen through.
This form can be roughly divided into three types of primary, secondary, and tertiary.
The secondary shape was manufactured with a streamline shaped covering as described below. At the time when the secondary car was manufactured, a large-scale turning platform of 20 m or more in size was installed in each agency district of the main trunk line, but the 60 feet (18 m) chassis of the old standard was heavily used for the sub-trunk of rural areas In the second and subsequent form, shortening the distance between the centers of bogey car discs of coal- fired cars and the distance between the interfaces of the locomotive and the coal-fired cars in consideration of the circumstances of such placement section, the total length is shortened by 240 mm, Makes turning easily possible even with a 60 feet truck that was difficult to turn around.
Streamline type C55, No. 21
In the era when this form appeared streamline boom of railroad cars and cars occurred in various countries around the world. This aimed at reducing aerodynamic drag associated with aesthetic and speeding up. Along its flow, C53 43 were tested in streamlined structure is also full-scale introduction to this format, the secondary wheel made of 1936 - 21 both of (20 40) has been coined by the streamlined design.
In this configuration, like the C53 43 on the shape surface, cut out the smoke chamber part at the front end of the boiler diagonally, tilt the periphery of the smoke chamber door, cover the entire boiler, and from the front deck to the run board, It was a structure with the skirt and the casing covering the undercarriage up to the stand. As a result, even in a coal-fired car, the casing extended to the upper part of the body of the whole welded structure, and a sense of unity was produced by covering the periphery of the cart with a skirt.
In addition, in C53 43, we did not install an independent large-size smoke removal plate but formed a small smoke removal plate around the chimney of the boiler casing, but in this form, in addition to the small smoke removal plate, side skirts on the runboard A small semicircular tall low-profile smoke removal plate was also set up in a continuous form.
It is said that the intention of these casings and skirts was to prevent not only the demonstration effect but also the smoke emitted from the chimney from getting entangled with the train by improving the air flow. Stainless steel decorative bands were attached to the sides of the streamlined initial production cars, but they were omitted in later production vehicles. These streamlined machines were distributed  in several places all over the country other than Shikoku  , mainly driven the express train. The C55 24 - C55 26 belonging to the Nagoya agency district was also appointed to tow a temporary express "Yan".
However, the streamline shape adopted also in EF 55 type electric locomotive at the same time was judged to have little practical effect in the operation situation of the Nippon Railway at that time, it was also hated from the work site, and in the early period, The removal of the skirt of the upper part and the casing of the upper part of the coal-fired watermen began. This can be confirmed with a photograph taken in 1940 's recording film "Tessai Nobunaga" and at the same time. The lack of practical effect on the streamline type was the result of trial operation concerning the traction force and the running condition over the 10 days under observation by stakeholders such as the Ministry of Railways Operation Division and the Moji Railway Bureau on May 18, 1936, It is judged that there is no aerodynamic benefit that is compatible with the increase in production cost and locomotive weight due to streamlining  at operating speeds up to the maximum speed of passenger trains in the Ministry of Railways of 100 km / h . Also, since various parts are covered with a casing from the work site, it is necessary to remove them or to open the inspection lid at the time of maintenance inspection, so it takes more time and labor than the ordinary cars, and water supply / It is inconvenient for firebird organizing, smoke Muroto which was a structure opened and closed by pneumatic cylinders was broken temporarily and the fuel hanging work was temporarily confined by the breakdown, the sealed cab was easy to stay in the inside of it, and in the single track section It is also difficult to handle the slip, and the coal water turbine is incompatible with the coal pushing device (which moves the pushing plate at the rear part of the coke oven back and forth by the steam piston) which was installed inside, The problem  pointed out that there is a possibility of failure and it is impossible to work with coal while driving . When the Pacific War later got intensified, most of the skirts and casings were removed, mainly around the suspension, and it was used in a miserable form which is very different from the initial appearance.
After the war, from 1950 to the following 1951, these streamlined aircraft were remodeled so that the remaining streamline casing was completely removed and the appearance was almost the same as that of the primary car It redesigned its face. However, the roof of the rounded deep cabin, which did not require renovation in particular, and the crew entrance of the side were left intact, and the front end of the steam dome also remained tilted. In addition, in part of this form, which was rebuilt from streamlined aircraft, two safety valves were mounted on the mounting seat which protruded one step beyond the boiler barrel, leaving a side view of the streamlined age [ 6]. Those that were rebuilt from these streamlined machines were also called streamlined remodeling machines or flow regulating machines. There is also a criticism that these are more beautiful after restructuring than those at the time of new streamlined new cars. After these re-servicing, the 21 cars were completely treated the same way as ordinary cars, and they were operated while gradually reducing the number until the final stage of this form. Both of these do not exist. This is because Unit No. 30, which was operated until the end and was scheduled to be stored, was disassembled by mistake (to be described later).
After new construction, this form was placed in each agency district in charge of trunk and sub-trunk lines of Honshu, Kyushu, Hokkaido, and operation started. Especially the secondary car which became a streamline shape was distributed in small numbers everywhere in the whole country in consideration of advertising effect.
This form was more modernized and more strengthened C57 form appeared soon and mass produced, so it was hidden in its shadow, and it was hard to stand out anyhow. However, both of them can be handled almost equally, and both of them were superior in performance and usability, so they were heavily used for a long time in trunk lines and sub-trunk lines in all areas except Shikoku.
As this class which can enter the Shi line standard route was high demand, since 624 were enrolled until 1964 without encountering accident and war damage. In Honshu it was relocated and disappeared by scrapping by 1966, but in Hokkaido it was in October 1974 and in Kyushu it was active until March 1975.
"Gate Dif" installation example (C 55 46)
On the Soubanjo line which became the last use section in Hokkaido, the fact that the night bus express train "Rishiri" was pulled until December 1970, and the appearance with the background of Northern Natural landscape behind makes a strong impression on the fans. Also, most of the groups that were assigned to Kyushu after World War II were exchanged for cut-off type smoke removal board (Gate Dif) made by Kokura Factory, and since it was highly suited to the appearance, there were many enthusiasts.
The last scrapped car (excluding Unit No. 1 that was removed after plum alleyway preservation) was a car scrapped at the end of March 1975 at Unit 57.
Major remodeling / deformation other than "Gate Dif"
- Modification of the 1 / 3rd order cab of Hokkaido assignment to sealed type and installation of shield beam sub lamp (excluding Unit 7).
- A part of the Kyushu district attachment machine (51 - 54) exchanged D51 type and TENDA for long run compatibility.
- Temporarily installed in Unit 11, the Ogura Factory attached a custom designed smoke collecting device and tried it. For this reason the chimneys of the Aircraft are short.
- Only for Unit No. 48 (when belonging to Asahikawa), remodeled the handrail on the front left for replacement.
Additional installation of co-combustion apparatus of heavy oil and replacement of moving wheels are not implemented.
Taiwan Governor General Railway C55 type Edit
This format, in addition to the Mainland for, at that time Japanese rule was under the Taiwan of the Governor-General of Taiwan railway in for, isomorphic wheel 9 both in 1935 and 1938 ( C55 1 - 9 ) it has been delivered. The first five were located in the Keelung Agency district, and in 1939 ( Incheon of Showa 14th) when the additional vehicles were complete, there were 5 Taipei agency districts and 4 Miaoli plant district. After Japan was defeated by the Pacific War in 1945, it was taken over by Taiwan Railway Administration Bureau and became type CT 250 ( CT 251 - 259 ), and it disappeared in October 1982 .
- 1935 (5, equivalent to primary type for JNR)
- Mitsubishi Heavy Industries: 1 - 4
- Kawasaki vehicles: 5
- 1938 (3, equivalent to tertiary form for national railway)
- Mitsubishi Heavy Industries: 6 - 9
Storage device Edit
It was only 62 cars and a few manufacturers, in Honshu it was scrapped relatively early, so only 4 individuals will keep the whole shape. Unit 1 is the Kyoto Railway Museum (former Mei plain small steam locomotive building , designated as a semi-railway memorial as "Steam locomotive group of Umeitsuro and related facilities" in 2006 ), Unit 50 is Otaru City General Museum (railway and science · history Museum, in the former Hokkaido railway Museum), 52 Unit is Yoshimatsu Station before, 46 Unit (car number 53) is Oita grass park each in static storage are. Regarding Unit 50 of this, the original streamlined Unit No. 30 was scheduled as originally scheduled to be preserved, but due to a misfortune within the Hokkaido General Administration, it was dismantled at the Naeho factory after scrapping on February 1, 1975 . For this reason, Unit No. 50 which was scrapped in the Asahikawa Engineering Zone on November 18, 1974 was once brought in to the Hokkaido Railway Memorial Museum as "Unit No. 30", but it was preserved as Unit 50 again after being pointed out from the outside. It is because there are circumstances that evidence that "3" is reprinted from above in the engraving of "C55 50" of running equipment is because of such circumstances  .
The Wakkanai port north breakwater Dome 49 Unit that was in are dismantled in 1996 due to the aging by salt damage, there remains only the wheel. Because Unit 1 became stationary preservation, there is no current dynamic preservation machine.
- C 55 52 (in front of Yoshimatsu station)
- C55 type driving wheels
- C55 53 (46) (Oita-shi Wakusaku Park)
- C 55 50 (Otaru City General Museum)
- C55 49 (North Breakwater Dome) - Demolition in 1996, only the driving wheels exist
- Taiwan Railway Administration Administration CT 259 (Big Railway Event Story Building)
CT 251 in Taiwan (CT 259 and number changed when saving) was stored statically in Tainan City Sports Park  respectively CT 259 (CT 251 and number changed upon storage) were stored statically in Kaohsiung City Lotus Pond. However, CT 251 in Kaohsiung It was relocated to the city hitting railway incident building (former Kaohsiung Harbor station ), and at that time the number has been returned to the original CT 259.
- ^ This layout was followed by each form of steam locomotive after the national iron system.
- ^ This is also a problem with the cargo plane D50 type, etc. measures were taken, such as increasing the number of spokes in the rise, but it was still inadequate.
- ^ The arrangement at the time of the new production was 3 in both railway branches of Sapporo, Sendai, Tokyo, Nagoya, Moji, two in the Hiroshima Railway Bureau, and four in the Osaka Railway Bureau.
- ^ Keiichi Terashima "Urban Story of Locomotive History 15 Streamline Locomotive" Rail 1979 September issue p 26-28 See Press · Eisenburn
- ^ Naosaburo Masubuchi "Impression of the C55 type locomotive" "Japanese steam locomotive feature collection (upper)" p158-159 May 1978 published railway publication publication
- ^ Among them, the safety valve was kept at the high position until the end of Unit 27.
- ^ "Railway Fan" from the August issue of 1977 REPORT.
- ^ Storage location coordinates north latitude 22 degrees 58 minutes 29.13 seconds east longitude 120 degrees 12 minutes 25.46 seconds ( corresponding to Google street view )
- Shigenobu Usui "Japan steam locomotive format view assembly" 1969, MakotobundoShinkosha published
- Shigenobu Usui "genealogy view of the locomotive 4" 1972, companionship, Inc. published
- Kawakami Yukiyoshi "History of my steam locomotive" In 1978, published by Kotobukyusha
- Supervised by Takao Takada "Manchurian Guide Series 12 Steam Locomotive in Japan" 1981, published by Shogakukan
- Terashima Keiichi "About Steam Locomotive of Taiwan Railway" Rail No.23 (1988) Press · Eisenburn
- Kimiko Sanima "C55, C57 type steam locomotive" World railroad '71 (1970) Asahi Shimbun publication