JNR Class D51
Japanese National Railways (JNR) Class D51.
D51 453 preserved at Nishiguchi No. 1 Park in Kashiwa, Chiba at an unknown date.

Years built

1936 – 1945


Hitachi, JNR's Hamamatsu Works, JNR's Kokura Works, JNR's Koriyama Works, JNR's Naebo Works, JNR's Nagano Works, JNR's Ōmiya Works, JNR's Takatori Works, JNR's Tsuchizaki Works, Kawasaki Sharyō, Kisha Seizō, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Nippon Sharyo

Number Produced


Years in Operation

1937 – 24 December 1975

Fleet Numbers

D51 1 – D51 954, D51 1001 – D51 1161



Number Preserved

178 (2 in operational condition)

Number Scrapped


(l × w × h)

64 ft 8.75 in × Unknown × Unknown


3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm)

V - E - T - D

The JNR Class D51 is a 2-8-2 Mikado steam locomotive designed by Hideo Shima, an engineer who would become the driving force behind the creation of the Shinkansen.

The class was built by various manufacturers, such as the Kawasaki Locomotive Works, from 1936 to 1945 as a mixed-traffic engine, and was one of the most successful and most numerous types of steam locomotives produced in Japan. (Even during World War II, they were used to deliver weapons and vehicles across Japan to supply the Japanese Imperial Army troops.)

The Class D51 inspired the design of many other types of steam locomotives, was one of the first to use a knuckle-style coupler, and eventually became an iconic steam locomotive in Japan. (Like with the American Standard in the US.)

A total of 1,115 were built, with 178 surviving into preservation; two, D51 200 and D51 498, are in operational condition.

JGR/JNR steam locomotives
JGR 151101201301501601902304005006007008609001040106011001290143018001850190019601980200021002120240025003000301030603080315031703200324032503390380039003920395039804000450045105000510051305160523052605300540054905500560056305650568057005800583061206150620062706300635064006600700070107030705070807100715071707200727073007350740074507500755076007700775079007950800081008150820082508300835083608380840084508500900090409050915092009300940095009700A3
JNR 96010001060107011502700290035004100411062506700675067608550862087008800885089009020955095809600975098009850B10B20B50C10C11C12C50C51C52C53C54C55C56C57C58C59C60C61C62C63D50D51D52D60D61D62E10