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KiHa 35 series
KiHa 35 2009 Kururi
KiHa 35 series car 30 98 at Kururi Station in April 2009.
Details

Years built

1961 – 1966

Builder

Fuji Heavy Industries, Niigata Tekkō, Nippon Sharyo, Teikoku Sharyō, Tokyu Car Corporation

Number Produced

413 cars

Formations

Single car

Years in Operation

10 December 1961 – 1 December 2012

Fleet Numbers

Various

Classification

Unknown

Type of Diesel Train

DMU

Number Operational

None (1 on other railways)

Number Preserved

8 cars

Number Scrapped

401 cars

Dimensions
(l × w × h)

787 in (20,000 mm) × 115 in (2,929 mm) × 155 in (3,945 mm)

Prime mover(s)

DMH17 prime mover (most)
Cummins DMF14HZ prime mover (30 62, 30 98, 30 100)

Gauge

3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm)

V - E - T - D

The KiHa 35 series, along with the similar KiHa 30 and KiHa 36 series, are Japanese diesel multiple units. Built from 1961 to 1966 for JNR, the KiHa 35 series was widely used around Japan, but all were withdrawn in 2012 with the exception of those used by private railways.

HistoryEdit

Built from 1961 to 1966 by Fuji Heavy Industries (now known as Subaru Corporation), Niigata Tekkō (now known as Niigata Transys), Nippon Sharyo, Teikoku Sharyō (now defunct) and Tokyu Car Corporation (now known as J-TREC), the KiHa 35 series was originally used as a "commuter" diesel railcar for high-density services.

The 413 cars produced were inherited by almost all of JR's divisions; first introduced to commuter lines such as the Kawagoe, Sagami, Nara, Sakurai and Kansai Main Lines, electrification of said lines prompted reallocation of the cars to more remote parts of the country - regions towards which they have been rather ill-suited due to their uncomfortable longitudinal seating layout. In their later years, some cars were transferred to third-sector operators such as the Kantō Railway and the Mizushima Rinkai Railway, where they still see service today.

As most of these diesel railcars were operational for over 50 years, they were quickly replaced by newer railcars until the last three cars, 30 62, 30 98 and 30 100, owned by JR East and used on the Kururi Line, were retired from service on 1 December 2012. Car 30 100 has since been transferred to the Mizushima Rinkai Railway in 2014 for revenue service during morning and evening peaks, along with 30 98 which serves as a spare part donor.

One car, 30 15, has been kept by the Railway Technical Research Institute since 1987 after the privatization of the JNR. The car is painted in the Shōnan orange and green paintscheme that was never used on any KiHa 35 series car. It is used for research and development pertaining to drive control systems and is not used for revenue service.

VariantsEdit

The KiHa 35 series is the basic, single-cab design with toilets; the KiHa 35-0 series is the warm weather variant of which 217 have been built, while the KiHa 35-500 series cars are cold weather variants. The ten 35-900 cars are built by Tokyu Car Corporation from stainless steel using technology licensed from Budd. The KiHa 36 series cars are single-cab cars without toilets.

The KiHa 30 series cars have a double-cab design without toilets. Two sub-series exist; the KiHa 30-0 and KiHa 30-500 series cars. The KiHa 30-0 series cars are used in warm environments, while the KiHa 30-500 series cars have modifications that allow them to operate in harsh conditions such as the cold.

The KiHa 35-300 and KiKuHa 35-300 series cars are modified KiHa 35 units for use on the then-unelectrified Wadamisaki spur line, a high-capacity commuter shuttle line. Both sub-types feature additional standing space and additional doors on one side; KiKuHa 35-300 series cars are converted into unpowered cab cars to minimize maintenance costs.

KiHa 38 cars are rebodied and re-engined KiHa 35 series cars.

DesignEdit

The cars are distinguished by multiple adaptations to commuter operations, such as high-capacity, longitudinal seating layout, external sliding doors and lighter weight, as well as their boxy appearance and, on most examples, front reinforcement panels.

SpecificationsEdit

Construction is of steel, though some sub-variants of the series used stainless steel construction. Each car is 20 meters long and 2.929 meters wide. Originally DMH17 engines were used on all units, while Cummins DMF14HZ engines have been swapped into the three Kururi Line examples.

References Edit

JGR/JNR multiple units
JGR Wooden-bodied EMUs Commuter: 1963625062606280628563006310634033400335004320063100
Steel-bodied EMUs Commuter: 303132334042505162637072
Express: 5280
Non-revenue EMUs Non-revenue: 793493
DMUs Constant mesh gearbox: KiHa 01KiHa 04KiHa 07KiHa 5000KiHa 40000
Diesel-electric: KiHaNi 36450KiHa 43000KiHa 44000
Miscellaneous: KiSaHa 04
JNR AC EMUs Shinkansen: 0100200
Non-revenue Shinkansen: Class 922Class 925Class 941Class 951Class 961Class 962Class 1000
Commuter: 711713715717
Limited Express: 781
DC EMUs Commuter: 101103105111113115117119121123201203205207211213301
Limited Express: 151153155157159161165167169181183185189381
Non-revenue: 141143145147191193443495791
Proposed: 187
Dual-current EMUs Commuter: 413415417419
Limited Express: 455485489583
Non-revenue: 591
DMUs Commuter: KiHa 08KiHa 10KiHa 15KiHa 20KiHa 31KiHa 32KiHa 35KiHa 37KiHa 38KiHa 40KiHa 45KiHa 54KiHa 66
Express: KiHa 55KiHa 56KiHa 57KiHa 58KiHa 60KiHa 65KiHa 90
Limited Express: KiHa 80KiHa 181KiHa 183KiHa 185
Non-revenue: KiYa 191KiHa 391
JR East multiple units
Active AC EMUs Shinkansen: E2E3E4E5E6E7
Non-revenue Shinkansen: E926
Commuter: 701719E721
Limited Express: E751
DC EMUs Commuter: 115E127E129205209211215E217E231E233E235
Limited Express: 185189251253255E257E259E353
Non-revenue: 143145209-0
Dual-current EMUs Commuter: 415E501E531
Limited Express: 485651E653E657
Charter: E655
Non-revenue: E491
DMUs Commuter: KiHa 40KiHa 100KiHa E120KiHa E130KiHa 141
Express: KiHa 58
Non-revenue: KiYa E193KiYa E195
AC BEMUs Commuter: EV-E801
DC BEMUs Commuter: EV-E301
Non-revenue: E995
Hybrid MUs Commuter: KiHa E200HB-E210
Charter: E001HB-E300
Other MUs Non-revenue: E991
Withdrawn AC EMUs Shinkansen: 200400E1
Non-revenue Shinkansen: Class 925Fastech 360SFastech 360ZSTAR21
Commuter: 715717
Non-revenue: 740743
DC EMUs Commuter: 12101103105107113123201203207301E331
Limited Express: 157165167169183E351
Non-revenue: 90193901E993
Dual-current EMUs Commuter: 417451453455457
Limited Express: 489583
Non-revenue: 441443497E991
DMUs Commuter: KiHa 20KiHa 35KiHa 37KiHa 38KiHa 45
Non-revenue: KiYa 191
Hybrid MUs Non-revenue: KiYa E991
Future AC EMUs Shinkansen: ALFA-X
DC EMUs Limited Express: E261
DMUs Commuter: GV-E400
JR West multiple units
Active AC EMUs Shinkansen: 500700N700W7
Non-revenue Shinkansen: Class 923
DC EMUs Commuter: 103105113115117123125201205207213221223225227321323
Limited Express: 281283285287289381
Non-revenue: 145213/223-9000443
Dual-current EMUs Commuter: 413415521
Limited Express: 681683
DMUs Commuter: KiHa 40KiHa 120KiHa 121/126KiHa 122/127
Limited Express: KiHa 187KiHa 189
Non-revenue: KiYa 141
Hybrid DEMUs Charter: 87
Withdrawn AC EMUs Shinkansen: 0100300
Non-revenue Shinkansen: Class 922WIN350
DC EMUs Commuter: 4283101211
Limited Express: 165167183
Non-revenue: 9091441
Dual-current EMUs Commuter: 419455457471475
Limited Express: 485489583
DMUs Commuter: KiHa 33KiHa 35KiHa 37KiHa 45KiHa 52
Express: KiHa 58KiHa 65
Limited Express: KiHa 181
Non-revenue: KiYa 191
JR Central multiple units
Active AC EMUs Shinkansen: 700N700
Non-revenue Shinkansen: Class 923
DC EMUs Commuter: 211213311313
Limited Express: 285373383
DMUs Commuter: KiHa 11KiHa 25KiHa 75
Limited Express: KiHa 85
Non-revenue: KiYa 95KiYa 97
Withdrawn AC EMUs Shinkansen: 0100300
Non-revenue Shinkansen: 300XClass 922
DC EMUs Commuter: 12103105113115117119123
Limited Express: 165371381
Non-revenue: 90145193
DMUs Commuter: KiHa 30KiHa 40
Express: KiHa 58KiHa 65
Limited Express: KiHa 80
Future AC EMUs Shinkansen: N700S
Maglevs Maglev: L0
DMUs Limited Express: Unclassified "Hida" locomotive
JR Kyushu multiple units
Active AC EMUs Shinkansen: N700800
Commuter: 713811813815817
Limited Express: 783787883885
DC EMUs Commuter: 103303305
Dual-current EMUs Commuter: 415
Limited Express: 485
DMUs Commuter: KiHa 31KiHa 40KiHa 66KiHa 125KiHa 200
Express: KiHa 58
Limited Express: KiHa 71KiHa 72KiHa 185
Charter: KiHa 183-1000
AC BEMUs Commuter: BEC819
Withdrawn AC EMUs Commuter: 715717
Dual-current EMUs Commuter: 457475
DMUs Commuter: KiHa 20KiHa 35KiHa 45
Express: KiHa 65
Future AC EMUs Commuter: 821
Hybrid MUs Commuter: YC1
JR Shikoku multiple units
Active DC EMUs Commuter: 1131215000600070007200
Limited Express: 80008600
DMUs Commuter: KiHa 32KiHa 40KiHa 54100012001500
Limited Express: KiHa 1852000N20002600
Withdrawn DC EMUs Commuter: 111
DMUs Commuter: KiHa 20KiHa 35KiHa 45
Express: KiHa 57KiHa 58KiHa 65
Limited Express: KiHa 181
Future DMUs Limited Express: 2700
JR multiple units
Shinkansen
Active JR West 500700N700W7
JR East E2E3E4E5E6E7
JR Central 700N700
JR Kyushu N700800
JR Hokkaido H5
Withdrawn JR West 0100300
JR East 200400E1
JR Central 0100300
Future JR Central L0N700S
Non-revenue JNR Class 922Class 925Class 941Class 951Class 961Class 962Class 1000
JR West Class 922Class 923WIN350
JR East Class 925E926ALFA-XFastech 360SFastech 360ZSTAR21
JR Central Class 922Class 923300X
RTRI FGT-9000GCT01GCT01-200ML100ML500ML500RMLU001MLU002MLU002NMLX01
JR East multiple units
Active AC EMUs Shinkansen: E2E3E4E5E6E7
Non-revenue Shinkansen: E926
Commuter: 701719E721
Limited Express: E751
DC EMUs Commuter: 115E127E129205209211215E217E231E233E235
Limited Express: 185189251253255E257E259E353
Non-revenue: 143145209-0
Dual-current EMUs Commuter: 415E501E531
Limited Express: 485651E653E657
Charter: E655
Non-revenue: E491
DMUs Commuter: KiHa 40KiHa 100KiHa E120KiHa E130KiHa 141
Express: KiHa 58
Non-revenue: KiYa E193KiYa E195
AC BEMUs Commuter: EV-E801
DC BEMUs Commuter: EV-E301
Non-revenue: E995
Hybrid MUs Commuter: KiHa E200HB-E210
Charter: E001HB-E300
Other MUs Non-revenue: E991
Withdrawn AC EMUs Shinkansen: 200400E1
Non-revenue Shinkansen: Class 925Fastech 360SFastech 360ZSTAR21
Commuter: 715717
Non-revenue: 740743
DC EMUs Commuter: 12101103105107113123201203207301E331
Limited Express: 157165167169183E351
Non-revenue: 90193901E993
Dual-current EMUs Commuter: 417451453455457
Limited Express: 489583
Non-revenue: 441443497E991
DMUs Commuter: KiHa 20KiHa 35KiHa 37KiHa 38KiHa 45
Non-revenue: KiYa 191
Hybrid MUs Non-revenue: KiYa E991
Future AC EMUs Shinkansen: ALFA-X
DC EMUs Limited Express: E261
DMUs Commuter: GV-E400
JR West multiple units
Active AC EMUs Shinkansen: 500700N700W7
Non-revenue Shinkansen: Class 923
DC EMUs Commuter: 103105113115117123125201205207213221223225227321323
Limited Express: 281283285287289381
Non-revenue: 145213/223-9000443
Dual-current EMUs Commuter: 413415521
Limited Express: 681683
DMUs Commuter: KiHa 40KiHa 120KiHa 121/126KiHa 122/127
Limited Express: KiHa 187KiHa 189
Non-revenue: KiYa 141
Hybrid DEMUs Charter: 87
Withdrawn AC EMUs Shinkansen: 0100300
Non-revenue Shinkansen: Class 922WIN350
DC EMUs Commuter: 4283101211
Limited Express: 165167183
Non-revenue: 9091441
Dual-current EMUs Commuter: 419455457471475
Limited Express: 485489583
DMUs Commuter: KiHa 33KiHa 35KiHa 37KiHa 45KiHa 52
Express: KiHa 58KiHa 65
Limited Express: KiHa 181
Non-revenue: KiYa 191
JR Central multiple units
Active AC EMUs Shinkansen: 700N700
Non-revenue Shinkansen: Class 923
DC EMUs Commuter: 211213311313
Limited Express: 285373383
DMUs Commuter: KiHa 11KiHa 25KiHa 75
Limited Express: KiHa 85
Non-revenue: KiYa 95KiYa 97
Withdrawn AC EMUs Shinkansen: 0100300
Non-revenue Shinkansen: 300XClass 922
DC EMUs Commuter: 12103105113115117119123
Limited Express: 165371381
Non-revenue: 90145193
DMUs Commuter: KiHa 30KiHa 40
Express: KiHa 58KiHa 65
Limited Express: KiHa 80
Future AC EMUs Shinkansen: N700S
Maglevs Maglev: L0
DMUs Limited Express: Unclassified "Hida" locomotive
JR Kyushu multiple units
Active AC EMUs Shinkansen: N700800
Commuter: 713811813815817
Limited Express: 783787883885
DC EMUs Commuter: 103303305
Dual-current EMUs Commuter: 415
Limited Express: 485
DMUs Commuter: KiHa 31KiHa 40KiHa 66KiHa 125KiHa 200
Express: KiHa 58
Limited Express: KiHa 71KiHa 72KiHa 185
Charter: KiHa 183-1000
AC BEMUs Commuter: BEC819
Withdrawn AC EMUs Commuter: 715717
Dual-current EMUs Commuter: 457475
DMUs Commuter: KiHa 20KiHa 35KiHa 45
Express: KiHa 65
Future AC EMUs Commuter: 821
Hybrid MUs Commuter: YC1
JR Hokkaido multiple units
Active AC EMUs Shinkansen: H5
Commuter: 721731733735
Limited Express: 785789
DMUs Commuter: KiHa 40KiHa 54KiHa 141KiHa 150KiHa 201
Limited Express: KiHa 183KiHa 261KiHa 281KiHa 283
Withdrawn AC EMUs Commuter: 711
Limited Express: 781
Dual-current EMUs Limited Express: 485583
DMUs Commuter: KiHa 22KiHa 45KiHa 130
Express: KiHa 56
Limited Express: KiHa 80
Non-revenue: KiHa 160KiHa 285
Future DMUs Commuter: H100
JR Shikoku multiple units
Active DC EMUs Commuter: 1131215000600070007200
Limited Express: 80008600
DMUs Commuter: KiHa 32KiHa 40KiHa 54100012001500
Limited Express: KiHa 1852000N20002600
Withdrawn DC EMUs Commuter: 111
DMUs Commuter: KiHa 20KiHa 35KiHa 45
Express: KiHa 57KiHa 58KiHa 65
Limited Express: KiHa 181
Future DMUs Limited Express: 2700
Railway Technical Research Institute multiple units
Active DC BEMUs Non-revenue: LH02
Dual-current EMUs Non-revenue: FGT-9000
Fuel cell MUs Non-revenue: R291
Withdrawn Dual-current EMUs Non-revenue: GCT01GCT01-200
Maglev Non-revenue: ML100ML500ML500RMLU001MLU002MLU002NMLX01
JGR/JNR multiple units
JGR Wooden-bodied EMUs Commuter: 1963625062606280628563006310634033400335004320063100
Steel-bodied EMUs Commuter: 303132334042505162637072
Express: 5280
Non-revenue EMUs Non-revenue: 793493
DMUs Constant mesh gearbox: KiHa 01KiHa 04KiHa 07KiHa 5000KiHa 40000
Diesel-electric: KiHaNi 36450KiHa 43000KiHa 44000
Miscellaneous: KiSaHa 04
JNR AC EMUs Shinkansen: 0100200
Non-revenue Shinkansen: Class 922Class 925Class 941Class 951Class 961Class 962Class 1000
Commuter: 711713715717
Limited Express: 781
DC EMUs Commuter: 101103105111113115117119121123201203205207211213301
Limited Express: 151153155157159161165167169181183185189381
Non-revenue: 141143145147191193443495791
Proposed: 187
Dual-current EMUs Commuter: 413415417419
Limited Express: 455485489583
Non-revenue: 591
DMUs Commuter: KiHa 08KiHa 10KiHa 15KiHa 20KiHa 31KiHa 32KiHa 35KiHa 37KiHa 38KiHa 40KiHa 45KiHa 54KiHa 66
Express: KiHa 55KiHa 56KiHa 57KiHa 58KiHa 60KiHa 65KiHa 90
Limited Express: KiHa 80KiHa 181KiHa 183KiHa 185
Non-revenue: KiYa 191KiHa 391